Study Of Soot Aggregate Formation And Oxidation In A Swirled Stratified Premixed Ethylene/Air Flame
A.-S. Milea (1), A. Perrier (1,2), M. Caceres (1), G. Godard (1), A. Vandel (1), G. Cabot (1), F. Grisch (1)
(1) Normandie Univ., UNIROUEN, INSA Rouen, CNRS, CORIA, 76000 Rouen, France
(2) Safran Aircraft Engines Villaroche, 77550 Moissy-Cramayel, France
Soot particles are one of the main causes of today's pollution because of their negative contribution to global warming and human health. Aviation is one of the domains dealing with soot reduction as the new engine concepts are developed to reduce fuel consumption and global emissions. Despite the fact that most combustion devices used for air transportation operate at high pressure (e.g., aircraft gas turbines up to 40 bar), our understanding of soot formation and oxidation in such conditions is not yet at an appropriate level, as there is still a fundamental lack of experimental data and corresponding predictive models in the literature. Thus, the objective of the current study is to evaluate soot formation and oxidation processes in stratified, swirled, premixed ethylene/air flames examined with a variety of laser diagnostics designed to simultaneously measure soot particle and soot precursor 2D-distributions, as well as the flame structure and the aerodynamic field. For that, the SIRIUS burner was selected because of its ability to produce flames with topologies similar to those encountered in aircraft combustors. Soot particle distributions are measured by Planar Laser-induced incandescence (PLII) diagnostic. The flame structure is obtained by detecting the hydroxyl radicals (OH) with Planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF). A second PLIF diagnostic is also used to investigate the production of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) with the detection of two benzene rings molecules which are recognized as good precursors of soot nucleation and growth. Finally, the particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) diagnostic is used for measuring the velocity distributions. These laser diagnostics are coupled together in order to obtain cross-correlations between several scalar parameters playing a determining role in the soot formation/consumption processes. The experimental results collected at atmospheric pressure are reviewed and critically assessed. A scenario describing the link between the soot inception, growth, aggregation and oxidation processes is proposed by analyzing velocity, OH, PAHs and soot distributions. In particular, the data reveal the presence of distinct regions for these processes. Incipient soot production zone is strongly function of specific local conditions of velocity, PAH concentration, and strain rate encountered at the interface of the internal recirculation zone and the fuel/air jet. The central part of the inner recirculation zone in which large structures move at low velocities provides suitable conditions for the aggregation of nascent soot particles while an oxidation region located in the upper zone of the internal recirculation zone favors the consumption of soot.